[An Essay on the Principle of Population] Read ¹ Thomas Robert Malthus


An Essay on the Principle of Population

Read & Download An Essay on the Principle of Population An Essay on the Principle of Population Free read ´ 106 The text is accompanied by explanatory annotations and excerpts from the revised edition 1803 Key eighteenth century influences on Malthus are reprinted including one by Benjamin FranklinNine major assess. Well this was not uite what I expected The topic broadens into the public policy conseuences of his theory and the metaphysical purposes of misery Moreover the writing is excellent who expects Malthus to have a sense of humor I also didn t expect the feminism and the extension of the analysis from the how to the why of the misery produced by the imbalance in population and agriculture As a clergyman Malthus understandably felt it incumbent on him to justify to man the ways of a God who would create such a law of nature So he sets out to prove that misery is essential to the development of man s mind and heart Interesting topics because I am participating in a library based reading group that is spending the summer on Milton s Paradise LostThe Essay takes on Godwin s argument for the perfectibility of manwoman and hisher society with Malthus bent on showing the folly of Godwin s optimistic views It is also important to remember that this was an era of the belief that a larger population would produce a wealthier state Malthus with geometrical population growth and arithmetic food increase argues that the result of a surplus starving population would be reached almost immediately not in the distant futureAs a technical aside I thought Malthus would muster statistical support for the propositions that population expands geometrically at the rate he assumes and that agricultural production expands at the rate he assumes In fact I t think that both of his rates are shakier than he asserts although the general contrast of geometrical and arithmetical progressions were probably correct for his time ie before widespread contraception and the Green Revolution still a huge problem but not uite as fundamentally destined to a mismatch until you throw medical advances in First off the population issue Malthus asserts that population grows uickly right after an event that creates a food surplus He looks at the ratio of births to deaths in Europe before and after crises such as plagues fewer people same land food per person less worry about feeding your children earlier marriage births per death He doesn t examine the fact that the death rate would have been surpressed after plagues because the plague woud have carried off the most vulnerable So the ratios are suspect Similarly his assertion that a population will double in no than twenty five years when there is no food constraint based on data from America undervalues the contribution of immigration to population growth here and especially the age distribution of immigrants most would have been of an age to start or increase their families For example I looked up the ages of the ages of indentured servants shipping out of England over a period of years and almost none were older than thirty Presumably since people heading for a life of hewing farmsteads out of the wilderness knew how much physical work was involved the old and infirm would have stayed behind Skewed age distribution higher birth rate than in a normal population although according to a few websites early marriage was indeed commonThe food production uestion is especially interesting and highlights the conseuences of the lack of comprehensive economic statistics in his time Malthus was like the Physiocrats a believer in the proposition that the only measure of a country s wealth was agricultural production Cities and manufacturing led to unhealthy living and vice Anything other than land based production was a luxury that didn t add to the real food wealth that could improve the lot of the poorer laboring classes He offers that food production might increase by the current level every twenty five years with Herculean effort food for 7 million today for 14 million in twenty five years for 21 million in fifty years versus the potentially geometric increase in population He briefly discusses of the enclosures and intensive interest in scientific farming on the part of landowners but he argues that much of the increased capacity was used up in converting grain fields to pastures In fact one of his most interesting propositions is that redistribution of land would lead to increased production because it would reverse the grain to pasture process But there isn t really much in the way of agricultural statistics to back up his specific increase by present production every twenty five years hypothesis He also argued against the Poor Laws as tending toward a counter productive outcome He argues that if the poor can be sure of publicly provided food for their children if things go wrong they won t delay marriage and procreation This earned him lasting opprobrium from many intellectuals and artists although politicians and economists took his reasoning seriously The contraception solution to the conseuences of early marriage was in his opinion anathemaFurther Malthus repeatedly argues that women take the brunt of the misery from this unbalanced law of nature And at one point he says far be it from me to argue that women are not men s intellectual eual although their lives do not lead them as freuently to be strongly interested in such uestionsThe middle of the book is the long argument with Godwin saying that we are not headed to heaven on earth because man s basic nature is not going to change You cannot assert that people will start behaving contrary to ways we have always seen them behave a fantasy that they will refrain sufficiently from sex to keep the population down for example We can only look at the evidence But then because he feels he has to justify the ways of God to man he has boxed himself in a corner he needs to resort to Revelation to explain why misery exists and is necessary He can find no factual or reasonable explanation To be fair he acknowledges the problem right up front But he grabs the usual casuistic argument that the ways of God are too subtle for human minds so when we reach an impasse in our reasoned argument we must resign to incomprehensible wisdom I sensed that Malthus is himself frustrated by this resignation necessitated by his own discovery of the natural law of population despite his best efforts to argue that the mind needs adversity to develop as does the heart He also makes the surprising assertion that he doesn t believe in eternal damnation souls who don t merit Heaven are simply obliterated at deathThus I find Malthus was not inherently a callous pessimistic man but one who reasoned his way into a dismal position and tried to recommend policies that would do the least damage

Download á PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB Ä Thomas Robert Malthus

Read & Download An Essay on the Principle of Population An Essay on the Principle of Population Free read ´ 106 Ster R Brown Paul and Anne Ehrlich and Garrett Hardin to Julian Simon and Pope Paul VI All but one of the twenty four selections are new to the Second EditionA Selected Readings list and Index are include. Malthus published several editions of this essay I read his first edition published in 1798 His later editions addressed various concerns about what he had put forwardMalthus general argument is well known Population increases geometrically the means to support population increases arithmetically 1 This leads to a situation where population exceeds the means for existence which then checks population growth via misery disease starvation or vice wars those with means survive those without die Malthus presents these dynamics as laws of nature Though he acknowledges technological or behavioral changes that slow down these dynamics the end result is the always same population overtakes the means to support a population increaseThe Malthus thesis has been debated extensively by contemporary and historical commentators The explosion of population growth in the last century confirms the Malthus thesis on geometric expansion The debate is whether we are now dealing with the misery and vice components that Malthus highlighted as the natural conseuence of situations where sheer numbers of people overrun the capacity for subsistence scarcity of food and water competition for territory 2 Malthus strikingly framed his argument in a much broader context He argued that Pitt s poor laws were fundamentally flawed in a double sense because they allowed the poor to propagate beyond their means of subsistence and because they drew resources from the well off which were the very resources that promoted the welfare of the country This argument flows directly from Adam Smith s Wealth of Nations Smith argued that the selfish impulses of free market capitalism operating as an invisible hand benefited society as a whole Responding to criticism about the absence of benevolence Malthus believed that Smith s system was best suited to address misfortune and to keep population numbers and subsistence balanced All of this Malthus thinks was a reflection of God s plan for the world Malthus coming from a clergyman s background was a progressive in the sense that he saw life moving evolving from low to high with the latter defined as mind in control of matter This helps to explain his preoccupation with how those from the lower class fit into his population theories These individuals represented a degraded condition They were moved by passions and especially sexual passion More generally they were void of mental sophistication They freuented bars engaged in various debaucheries and spent their money When they ran out of money they abandoned their family and left them to the care of the state But through the invisible hand principle Malthus system had the virtue of regulating ie eliminating these lower types and thereby leaving those with obvious mental superiority to advance ipso facto God s plan for Mind in the world 3In a sense Malthus philosophical schema could be seen as a modernized version of the Platonic vision for the immanence of God in the world But whereas Plato left the material world behind as but a shadow on the cave wall Malthus anchored his argument in Smith s invisible hand and material reality Malthus argues from nature to God not the other way around 4 In fact nature and the laws of population and subsistence is used by Malthus in this book to argue against the idealism of two contemporary theorists Condorcet and Godwin who he says believed in the indefinite prolongation of human life as a very curious instance of the longing of the soul after immortality 5 Later he takes on Godwin s idealism in another sense Godwin Malthus says lodged all evil in society and its institutions thereby highlighting the role of human created problems over the laws of nature 6 Godwin argued that the unlimited perfectibility of man was limited by bad institutions that corrupted the best tendencies of humankind Malthus was clear though that human passions especially within those of the lower classes were such that perfectibility was and always would be an illusion because his natural law relating to population subsistence have been and always would be life s prevailing dynamic unless or until humankind was purged through natural selection of these misery inducing passions1 Population increases 1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 256 512 c And subsistence increases 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 c2 Another conseuence that Malthus does not mention is whether uality of life is compromised by a crowded world3 It is to the established administration of property and to the apparently narrow principle of self love that we are indebted for all the noblest exertions of human genius all the finer and delicate emotions of the soul for every thing indeed that distinguishes the civilized from the savage state Later the survival of the fittest argument was picked up heavily by Darwin especially in connection with what he regarded as the superior white race who via colonialism controlled non white peoples4 In all our feeble attemptsto find out the Almighty to perfection it seems absolutely necessary that we should reason from nature up to nature s God and not presume to reason from God to nature5 The rest of the uote reads as follows Both these gentlemen have rejected the light of revelation which absolutely promises eternal life in another state They have also rejected the light of natural religion which to the ablest intellects in all ages has indicated the future existence of the soul Yet so congenial is the idea of immortality to the mind of man that they cannot consent entirely to throw it out of their systems After all their fastidious scepticisms concerning the only probable mode of immortality they introduce a species of immortality of their own not only completely contradictory to every law of philosophical probability 6 The great bent of Mr Godwin s work on political justiceis to show that the greater part of the vices and weaknesses of men proceed from the injustice of their political and social institutions and that if these were removed and the understandings of men enlightened there would be little or no temptation in the world to evil As it has been clearly proved however at least as I think that this is entirely a false conception and that independent of any political or social institutions whatever the greater part of mankind from the fixed and unalterable laws of nature must ever be subject to the evil temptations arising from want besides other passions

Thomas Robert Malthus Ä 6 Summary

Read & Download An Essay on the Principle of Population An Essay on the Principle of Population Free read ´ 106 Ments from the nineteenth century are reprinted including new to the Second Edition those of Frances Pace and Harriet MartineauContemporary commentary ranges widely through many schools of thought from Le. An intelligent man taught me to think of Malthus by drawing a line graph with population on the x axis and food supply on the y axis Draw a straight line from the top left corner to the bottom right and plot a point midway down the line Once you pass that point going down things start to get interesting I see that a good number of reviews on here are negative and I imagine they re that way because the reader stopped once Malthus went into the English Poor Laws Like any good theorist his writing can drift into misunderstood subjects and it s hard to figure out what the hell he s talking about when he does but with Malthus you just have to keep reading I have that problem with Aristotle but it s the same concept a contemporary mind cannot think in two dimensions The gist of what you need to take from Malthus are the checks to population and the importance of food and water in the natural order of civilized human life With over 7 billion people on this planet those issues are starting to become uite important bb

  • Paperback
  • 317
  • An Essay on the Principle of Population
  • Thomas Robert Malthus
  • English
  • 10 February 2018
  • 9780393924107

10 thoughts on “[An Essay on the Principle of Population] Read ¹ Thomas Robert Malthus

  1. says: Read & Download An Essay on the Principle of Population Download á PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB Ä Thomas Robert Malthus Thomas Robert Malthus Ä 6 Summary

    [An Essay on the Principle of Population] Read ¹ Thomas Robert Malthus Humans tend to increase faster than they can create food so at a certain point they will be unable to support themselves There are two ways to control this decrease birth rate preventive checks or increase death rate positive checks; if the first one doesn't happen the second inevitably willThat general idea is so obvious that it seems hard to believe someone would have to come up with it and Malthus is just the guy who

  2. says: Thomas Robert Malthus Ä 6 Summary Download á PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB Ä Thomas Robert Malthus [An Essay on the Principle of Population] Read ¹ Thomas Robert Malthus

    Read & Download An Essay on the Principle of Population [An Essay on the Principle of Population] Read ¹ Thomas Robert Malthus I’m not sure what exactly I expected from this little book Certainly I expected to see Malthus’s oft cited argument concerning the rate of food production vs that of population increase but I wondered if an entire boo

  3. says: Download á PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB Ä Thomas Robert Malthus Thomas Robert Malthus Ä 6 Summary [An Essay on the Principle of Population] Read ¹ Thomas Robert Malthus

    [An Essay on the Principle of Population] Read ¹ Thomas Robert Malthus Well this was not uite what I expected The topic broadens into the public policy conseuences of his theory and the metaphysical purposes of misery Moreover the writing is excellent; who expects Malthus to have a sense of humor? I also didn’t

  4. says: [An Essay on the Principle of Population] Read ¹ Thomas Robert Malthus

    [An Essay on the Principle of Population] Read ¹ Thomas Robert Malthus Thomas Robert Malthus Ä 6 Summary I read this book because it has been recommended as one of the influences for the modern capitalist system Adam smith is regarded as the founding father of our current economic system and the ideas of Malthus which are presented in this book serve as a solidifying justification to further support the capitalist class systemAs much as I dete

  5. says: Download á PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB Ä Thomas Robert Malthus [An Essay on the Principle of Population] Read ¹ Thomas Robert Malthus Thomas Robert Malthus Ä 6 Summary

    Thomas Robert Malthus Ä 6 Summary [An Essay on the Principle of Population] Read ¹ Thomas Robert Malthus Yet another reading for my Economic History class

  6. says: [An Essay on the Principle of Population] Read ¹ Thomas Robert Malthus

    [An Essay on the Principle of Population] Read ¹ Thomas Robert Malthus An intelligent man taught me to think of Malthus by drawing a line graph with population on the x axis and food supply on the y axis Draw a stra

  7. says: [An Essay on the Principle of Population] Read ¹ Thomas Robert Malthus

    [An Essay on the Principle of Population] Read ¹ Thomas Robert Malthus Download á PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB Ä Thomas Robert Malthus Read & Download An Essay on the Principle of Population Malthus is a rational man a brilliant man but a man without a real sense of humanity His justifications of his theory were taking humans as mere objects translated into numbers looking on the macro side and not even dealing with the intimate details of people family and community in his theory Sort of Darwin istic only he's taking it a ste

  8. says: Download á PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB Ä Thomas Robert Malthus [An Essay on the Principle of Population] Read ¹ Thomas Robert Malthus Thomas Robert Malthus Ä 6 Summary

    [An Essay on the Principle of Population] Read ¹ Thomas Robert Malthus The basic argument of the book is dead To borrow Monty Python 'E's not pinin' 'E's passed on This argument is no He has ceased to be 'E's expired and gone to meet 'is maker 'E's a stiff Bereft of life 'e rests in peace If you hadn't nailed 'im to the perch 'e'd be pushing up the daisies 'Is metabolic processes are now 'istory 'E's off the twig 'E's kicked the bucket 'e's shuffled off 'is mortal coil run down the curtain and joined

  9. says: [An Essay on the Principle of Population] Read ¹ Thomas Robert Malthus Thomas Robert Malthus Ä 6 Summary Read & Download An Essay on the Principle of Population

    Read & Download An Essay on the Principle of Population [An Essay on the Principle of Population] Read ¹ Thomas Robert Malthus Download á PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB Ä Thomas Robert Malthus Malthus published several editions of this essay I read his first edition published in 1798 His later editions addressed various concerns about what he had put forwardMalthus' general argument is well known Population increases geometrically;

  10. says: Download á PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB Ä Thomas Robert Malthus Thomas Robert Malthus Ä 6 Summary [An Essay on the Principle of Population] Read ¹ Thomas Robert Malthus

    Read & Download An Essay on the Principle of Population [An Essay on the Principle of Population] Read ¹ Thomas Robert Malthus Thomas Robert Malthus Ä 6 Summary I've reviewed this in conjunction with Jonathan Swift's A Modest Proposal here

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *