PDF FREE [The Indispensable Enemy: Labor and the Anti–Chinese Movement in California]


6 thoughts on “PDF FREE [The Indispensable Enemy: Labor and the Anti–Chinese Movement in California]

  1. says: PDF FREE [The Indispensable Enemy: Labor and the Anti–Chinese Movement in California] read & download ☆ eBook or Kindle ePUB Ù Alexander Saxton

    PDF FREE [The Indispensable Enemy: Labor and the Anti–Chinese Movement in California] Nineteenth century labor writers and orators framed the justification for hostility to Chinese immigrants with the cheap labor argument Chinese workers whether from some inherent cultural or racial characteristic or by cause of the system of

  2. says: PDF FREE [The Indispensable Enemy: Labor and the Anti–Chinese Movement in California]

    PDF FREE [The Indispensable Enemy: Labor and the Anti–Chinese Movement in California] Local history is interesting and populism is interesting and is also currently relevant for obvious reasons Saxton tells the story of the power struggles among whites in California after the Civil War including

  3. says: PDF FREE [The Indispensable Enemy: Labor and the Anti–Chinese Movement in California] read & download ☆ eBook or Kindle ePUB Ù Alexander Saxton review The Indispensable Enemy: Labor and the Anti-Chinese Movement in California

    read & download ☆ eBook or Kindle ePUB Ù Alexander Saxton PDF FREE [The Indispensable Enemy: Labor and the Anti–Chinese Movement in California] Alexander Saxton Ù 3 characters For a book published in the 70s this holds up really really well; and while i don't think a book on how racism specifically institutionalized anti Chinese racism shaped the politics and labor movement of the West Coast is exactly world shattering news unless you are some sort of political position devoted to lauding the working class but it is well written and has that particular historical number crunching tha

  4. says: PDF FREE [The Indispensable Enemy: Labor and the Anti–Chinese Movement in California]

    PDF FREE [The Indispensable Enemy: Labor and the Anti–Chinese Movement in California] Alexander Saxton Ù 3 characters Important interpretation of the West and an early study of anti Chinese racism Saxton's prose is elouent though I expected a bit history from below Maybe just a methodological difference It's a bit dry toward the end filled with political history Damn though I do like parts of his writing style Very difficult to use though His sentences just

  5. says: read & download ☆ eBook or Kindle ePUB Ù Alexander Saxton PDF FREE [The Indispensable Enemy: Labor and the Anti–Chinese Movement in California]

    PDF FREE [The Indispensable Enemy: Labor and the Anti–Chinese Movement in California] Alexander Saxton Ù 3 characters Extremely dry though perhaps not by academic history standards especially in the history of labour Still really interesting though and really good for growing your depth of perspective on the labour issues of the 19th century Because you know everyone wants to do that of course

  6. says: read & download ☆ eBook or Kindle ePUB Ù Alexander Saxton PDF FREE [The Indispensable Enemy: Labor and the Anti–Chinese Movement in California] Alexander Saxton Ù 3 characters

    PDF FREE [The Indispensable Enemy: Labor and the Anti–Chinese Movement in California] A classic should be read by everyone trying to understand California labor history

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *


  • Paperback
  • 293
  • The Indispensable Enemy: Labor and the Anti-Chinese Movement in California
  • Alexander Saxton
  • English
  • 07 September 2020
  • 9780520029057

review The Indispensable Enemy: Labor and the Anti-Chinese Movement in California

review The Indispensable Enemy: Labor and the Anti-Chinese Movement in California Alexander Saxton Ù 3 characters read & download ☆ eBook or Kindle ePUB Ù Alexander Saxton Rity Focusing on the Democratic party and the labor movement of California through the forty year period after the Civil War Alexander Saxton explores aspects of the Jacksonian background which proves crucial to an understanding of what occurred in Calif. Local history is interesting and populism is interesting and is also currently relevant for obvious reasons Saxton tells the story of the power struggles among whites in California after the Civil War including labor unionists socialists demagogues career politicians Democrats Republicans and third partiers reformers radicals the unemployed the skilled and unskilled immigrants large and small business owners and managers et al regarding Chinese immigrants mostly indentured workers but also padrones and business owners As Saxton tells it Chinese indentured labor which made up 10 25% of wage labor in CA in the late 19th Century was an economic threat to Western states white workers Rather than deal with it as an economic problem the labor movement treated it mostly as a racial issue In Saxton s view the treatment of the Chinese in CA was a revival of the racial politics of the white populist Jacksonian democracy movement which had been divided by the Civil War except it was the Chinese who were being excluded rather than African AmericansThis is considered to be one of the most important books by one of the founders of Asian American studies

read & download ☆ eBook or Kindle ePUB Ù Alexander SaxtonThe Indispensable Enemy: Labor and the Anti-Chinese Movement in California

review The Indispensable Enemy: Labor and the Anti-Chinese Movement in California Alexander Saxton Ù 3 characters read & download ☆ eBook or Kindle ePUB Ù Alexander Saxton Winner Silver Medal California Book Awards Commonwealth Club of California With a foreword by William Deverell The Indispensable Enemy examines the anti Chinese confrontation on the Pacific Coast as it was experienced and rationalized by the white majo. Nineteenth century labor writers and orators framed the justification for hostility to Chinese immigrants with the cheap labor argument Chinese workers whether from some inherent cultural or racial characteristic or by cause of the system of labor contracts that brought them to America were willing to work for far lower wages than white workers These low wage demands plus the seeming endless supply of manpower from mainland China would lead to an ever cheapening of labor eventually overwhelming the possibility of economic independence for free white wage laborIn The Indispensable Enemy Alexander Saxton argues that this economic raionale is not sufficient to understand anti Chinese sentiment that lead to the passage of the Chinese Exclusion Act First the he addresses the reality of Chinese labor competition Chinese immigrants made up 9 percent of the California population in 1860 and though gaining in absolute numbers until the immigration restrictions of the 1882 white population grew faster and the Chinese were 75 percent in 1880 However the Chinese who came to America were almost entirely men of prime working age As the white population was increasingly made up of family groups with the decline of the early placer mining period the Chinese made up a far larger fraction of the workforce population perhaps up to 20 percent 1870 This raises the possibility of considerable competition between white and Chinese laborIn the placer mining period white 49ers were largely successful in monopolizing mining stakes driving off Chinese and other groups like the prior Mexican inhabitants However a large service sector developed to supply the needs of the mining camps and Chinese immigrants filled this role With some struggle whites also kept the Chinese out of the core mining jobs in the deep shaft phase that followed The first mass importation of Chinese contract labor came with the effort to man railroad construction But even here Chinese were largely filling new low skill jobs for which few white applicants existed As Chinese labor increased white workers were not displaced but moved up to skilled and supervisory positions As both manufacturing and market competition increased with the completion of the railroad a new split developed between locally oriented low competition building and shipping trades dominated by whites and nationally oriented high competition light manufacturing dominated by Chinese The higher waged labor that survived in light industry in for instance cigar and shoe making did so ironically by charging a higher price for white made products Sadly this white label may be the origins of the union label programBy the 1870s a split labor market had developed and there was little direct competition between Chinese and white workers And yet opposition to the Chinese dominated politics in California from the Reconstruction era to the enactment of Chinese exclusion and to some extent beyond in the form of anti Japanese organizing And anti Chinese sentiment was the major rallying cry of all labor organizations through this period Saxton finds the solution to this paradox in the ideological value of anti Chinese sentiment to both labor leaders and politicians appealing to the worker voteSaxton finds the roots of this ideologically useful racism in the Jacksonian period when the newly politically active northern working class found an ally of convenience in the southern slave owners under the umbrella of the Democratic Party The ideology of the northern worker parties was rooted in the egalitarian producers ethic that saw political and cultural virtue flowing from farmer and artisan labor However in order to justify the alliance with the South northern Democrats had to draw the egalitarian line at the racial barrier and argue that it was black inferiority that reuired their subjugation under slavery Abolition would mean competition with degraded black labor eventually undermining whites However as the nation moved westward the expansion of the slave system began to seem the greater threat to free labor and the Democracy eventually collapsed under the sectional divide This new opposition to slavery reuired no allegiance with the slaves and northern support for bringing blacks into the body politic was thin at best However in the direct aftermath of the Civil War open calls for anti black racism were at least temporarily discredited If politics of unity through a common enemy were to continue a new enemy was needed First in the west and then to some extent nationally that enemy was the ChineseThe bulk of the book is a narrative of successive political and labor struggles that were shaped by anti Chinese rhetoric and organizing The basic outline of this story Denis Kearny s sand lot rabble rousing increasingly unified opposition to the Chinese on the West coast and the eventual winning over of national politicians in the passage of Chinese Exclusion is familiar from the works of Mary Coolidge and Elmer Sandmeyer However these earlier authors had generally presented labor and working class organizations as a united front against the Chinese Saxton s principle contribution is in the detailing of the internal struggles of workers over the use anti Chinese rhetoric and organizing and the way focus on the Chinese tactic shaped labor ideologies and organizational structuresSaxton concludes by discussing how anti Chinese rhetoric served the leadership of the craft unions by restricting the broad egalitarianism of the producer ethic Such an ethic is difficult to reconcile with a craft structure based on restricting access to privileged skills The early post bellum union federations had expressed the expansive language even if their organizations were in fact small and restrictive The opposition to the Chinese had normalized the notion that the benefits of free labor would only be available to some not all By 1905 Samuel Gompers could say But the Caucasians are not going to let their standard of living be destroyed by negroes Chinamen Japs or any others Those others being the new European immigrantsSo what can we make of Saxton s argument First I think it s worth noting several things that the book does not do This is not a book about the Chinese The Chinese workers are the object of struggles among white workers and between white workers and other groups Ironically we also don t really hear much about the white workers This is a result of the principle reliance on local periodicals and a small number of leader autobiographies as sources What we really learn about is the public activities of formal organizations along with reports of major incidents of violence Who were the people who turned out to Kearney s sandlot rallies and why where they there It s difficult to knowAnother weakness is the geographic focus Almost all of the action takes place in San Francisco Saxton goes into considerable detail in the local political jockeying not all of which was related to Chinese opposition Again this was probably a result of the reliance on San Francisco newspapers The focus is not entirely misplaced as SF was the major population and political center of California for much of the 19th century and California was clearly the center of anti Chinese activism However freuently when it came time to make the links to national level politics the discussion felt cut short Why did Chinese exclusion have so much national salience when the Chinese population was essentially restricted to the far westThe uestion of the origins of opposition to the Chinese is also raised but little investigated As Saxton notes in the first chapter during almost all of the parties in this struggle had moved to California as adults only about 40% had been born in America and most those were likely second generation with strong ties to their ethnic communities On the east coast these ethnic differences were the source of considerable tensions However in the west only the Chinese were the outsiders Saxton s conclusion on this topic is worth uoting at length because it is one of the earliest formulations of the whiteness though he does little to substantiate the concept here Among workingmen especially this proposition the degradation of Chinese workers became self evident The outstanding characteristic of all those disparate elements which composed the non Chinese labor force was that they were not Chinese Assimilability was on the point of being discovered that mysterious substance which resided in the circulatory systems of persons having certain ancestries and which rendered them desirable as neighbors sons in law fellow workers and even as voters The words assimilable white and the pseudo scientific term Caucasian just then coming into fashion would be taken as euivalents Before the decade of the seventies was out there would be California workingmen styling themselves brothers in the Order of Caucasians who would undertake the systematic killing of Chinese in order to preserve their assimilable fellow toilers from total ruin There is some implication that the origins of this racism are in the experience with racism against blacks and the slave system but for the new immigrants that might in reality have been fairly minimal This leads to the most difficult uestion in the book Saxton has made his case well that the anti Chinese sentiment was not driven principally be rational economic calculation Anti coolieism was far better politics than economics However this leaves open the uestion of the dialectic between anti Chinese racism among the population and the anti Chinese rhetoric put forth by politicians and labor leaders Saxton s narrative runs in the direction of viewing the leadership as using racism instrumentally This is perhaps best seen in the story of Frank Roney whose autobiography is a major source for the book Roney was a labor radical sometime socialist He at times expressed real concern about the excesses of anti Chinese activism But after losing an early organizational struggle with the firebrand Kearney Roney switched tactics and decided to use anti Chinese sentiment as a tool for building the labor movement This implies that the racism was simply out there in the population and that the leaders would either oppose the Chinese or be swept aside But what of the role of the incessant anti Chinese propaganda in the creation of the racist environmentSuggestions for further readingSucheng Chan This Bittersweet Soil The Chinese in California Agriculture 1860 1910Andrew Gyory Closing the Gate Race Politics and the Chinese Exclusion ActNajia Aarim Heriot Chinese Immigrants African Americans and Racial Anxiety in the United States 1848 82 Lord Change Me rationalized by the white majo. Nineteenth century labor writers and orators framed the justification for hostility to Chinese immigrants with the cheap labor argument Chinese workers whether from some inherent cultural or Kant in 90 Minutes Philosophers in 90 Minutes racial characteristic or by cause of the system of labor contracts that brought them to America were willing to work for far lower wages than white workers These low wage demands plus the seeming endless supply of manpower from mainland China would lead to an ever cheapening of labor eventually overwhelming the possibility of economic independence for free white wage laborIn The Indispensable Enemy Alexander Saxton argues that this economic Canning For Beginners raionale is not sufficient to understand anti Chinese sentiment that lead to the passage of the Chinese Exclusion Act First the he addresses the Slow Cooker Freezer Meals: 30 Tasty and Quick Recipes reality of Chinese labor competition Chinese immigrants made up 9 percent of the California population in 1860 and though gaining in absolute numbers until the immigration A History of Notable Shadowhunters Denizens of Downworld told in the language of flowers restrictions of the 1882 white population grew faster and the Chinese were 75 percent in 1880 However the Chinese who came to America were almost entirely men of prime working age As the white population was increasingly made up of family groups with the decline of the early placer mining period the Chinese made up a far larger fraction of the workforce population perhaps up to 20 percent 1870 This Hickory Dickory Dock raises the possibility of considerable competition between white and Chinese laborIn the placer mining period white 49ers were largely successful in monopolizing mining stakes driving off Chinese and other groups like the prior Mexican inhabitants However a large service sector developed to supply the needs of the mining camps and Chinese immigrants filled this Nordwind-Südwind role With some struggle whites also kept the Chinese out of the core mining jobs in the deep shaft phase that followed The first mass importation of Chinese contract labor came with the effort to man Good Morning Superman railroad construction But even here Chinese were largely filling new low skill jobs for which few white applicants existed As Chinese labor increased white workers were not displaced but moved up to skilled and supervisory positions As both manufacturing and market competition increased with the completion of the Diet Demography and Disease Changing Perspectives on Anemia Foundations of Human Behavior railroad a new split developed between locally oriented low competition building and shipping trades dominated by whites and nationally oriented high competition light manufacturing dominated by Chinese The higher waged labor that survived in light industry in for instance cigar and shoe making did so ironically by charging a higher price for white made products Sadly this white label may be the origins of the union label programBy the 1870s a split labor market had developed and there was little direct competition between Chinese and white workers And yet opposition to the Chinese dominated politics in California from the Reconstruction era to the enactment of Chinese exclusion and to some extent beyond in the form of anti Japanese organizing And anti Chinese sentiment was the major She's No Faerie Princess rallying cry of all labor organizations through this period Saxton finds the solution to this paradox in the ideological value of anti Chinese sentiment to both labor leaders and politicians appealing to the worker voteSaxton finds the Dark Melody roots of this ideologically useful A Day of Glory racism in the Jacksonian period when the newly politically active northern working class found an ally of convenience in the southern slave owners under the umbrella of the Democratic Party The ideology of the northern worker parties was Lighthouse Jive rooted in the egalitarian producers ethic that saw political and cultural virtue flowing from farmer and artisan labor However in order to justify the alliance with the South northern Democrats had to draw the egalitarian line at the Tucker Stone racial barrier and argue that it was black inferiority that SERIAL KILLERS: Homicide True Crime (5 Book Box Set) reuired their subjugation under slavery Abolition would mean competition with degraded black labor eventually undermining whites However as the nation moved westward the expansion of the slave system began to seem the greater threat to free labor and the Democracy eventually collapsed under the sectional divide This new opposition to slavery The Stranger reuired no allegiance with the slaves and northern support for bringing blacks into the body politic was thin at best However in the direct aftermath of the Civil War open calls for anti black Stronger Together racism were at least temporarily discredited If politics of unity through a common enemy were to continue a new enemy was needed First in the west and then to some extent nationally that enemy was the ChineseThe bulk of the book is a narrative of successive political and labor struggles that were shaped by anti Chinese Stupefying Stories rhetoric and organizing The basic outline of this story Denis Kearny s sand lot Thank You for All Things rabble Treasure Box rousing increasingly unified opposition to the Chinese on the West coast and the eventual winning over of national politicians in the passage of Chinese Exclusion is familiar from the works of Mary Coolidge and Elmer Sandmeyer However these earlier authors had generally presented labor and working class organizations as a united front against the Chinese Saxton s principle contribution is in the detailing of the internal struggles of workers over the use anti Chinese Révolution Spirite rhetoric and organizing and the way focus on the Chinese tactic shaped labor ideologies and organizational structuresSaxton concludes by discussing how anti Chinese I'm Yours Baby rhetoric served the leadership of the craft unions by Ink Witch (Kat Dubois Chronicles, #1) restricting the broad egalitarianism of the producer ethic Such an ethic is difficult to Locking Arms: Strength in Character through Friendships reconcile with a craft structure based on With No One As Witness restricting access to privileged skills The early post bellum union federations had expressed the expansive language even if their organizations were in fact small and A Place of Hiding restrictive The opposition to the Chinese had normalized the notion that the benefits of free labor would only be available to some not all By 1905 Samuel Gompers could say But the Caucasians are not going to let their standard of living be destroyed by negroes Chinamen Japs or any others Those others being the new European immigrantsSo what can we make of Saxton s argument First I think it s worth noting several things that the book does not do This is not a book about the Chinese The Chinese workers are the object of struggles among white workers and between white workers and other groups Ironically we also don t Pinoy Komiks result of the principle Oxford Student Texts Alexander Pope The Rape of the Lock Oxford Student Texts reliance on local periodicals and a small number of leader autobiographies as sources What we Katzensitter really learn about is the public activities of formal organizations along with The Enemy Within reports of major incidents of violence Who were the people who turned out to Kearney s sandlot Everything for Her (For Her, #1) rallies and why where they there It s difficult to knowAnother weakness is the geographic focus Almost all of the action takes place in San Francisco Saxton goes into considerable detail in the local political jockeying not all of which was Poetry Speaks Hear Great Poets Read Their Work from Tennyson to Plath related to Chinese opposition Again this was probably a Jason Karl's Great Ghost Hunt result of the Letters Home reliance on San Francisco newspapers The focus is not entirely misplaced as SF was the major population and political center of California for much of the 19th century and California was clearly the center of anti Chinese activism However freuently when it came time to make the links to national level politics the discussion felt cut short Why did Chinese exclusion have so much national salience when the Chinese population was essentially Tears We Cannot Stop A Sermon to White America restricted to the far westThe uestion of the origins of opposition to the Chinese is also Shake, Wiggle & Roll raised but little investigated As Saxton notes in the first chapter during almost all of the parties in this struggle had moved to California as adults only about 40% had been born in America and most those were likely second generation with strong ties to their ethnic communities On the east coast these ethnic differences were the source of considerable tensions However in the west only the Chinese were the outsiders Saxton s conclusion on this topic is worth uoting at length because it is one of the earliest formulations of the whiteness though he does little to substantiate the concept here Among workingmen especially this proposition the degradation of Chinese workers became self evident The outstanding characteristic of all those disparate elements which composed the non Chinese labor force was that they were not Chinese Assimilability was on the point of being discovered that mysterious substance which Heads Tails resided in the circulatory systems of persons having certain ancestries and which Here, Kitty, Kitty! rendered them desirable as neighbors sons in law fellow workers and even as voters The words assimilable white and the pseudo scientific term Caucasian just then coming into fashion would be taken as euivalents Before the decade of the seventies was out there would be California workingmen styling themselves brothers in the Order of Caucasians who would undertake the systematic killing of Chinese in order to preserve their assimilable fellow toilers from total Katzensitter racism are in the experience with Green Your Home: A Keller Williams Guide racism against blacks and the slave system but for the new immigrants that might in Itch reality have been fairly minimal This leads to the most difficult uestion in the book Saxton has made his case well that the anti Chinese sentiment was not driven principally be Curiolio rational economic calculation Anti coolieism was far better politics than economics However this leaves open the uestion of the dialectic between anti Chinese Purgatorio racism among the population and the anti Chinese Light Therapy rhetoric put forth by politicians and labor leaders Saxton s narrative Destiny Derailed runs in the direction of viewing the leadership as using Keep Cool racism instrumentally This is perhaps best seen in the story of Frank Roney whose autobiography is a major source for the book Roney was a labor The Perfect Stranger radical sometime socialist He at times expressed Dare to Dance Maxwell #4 real concern about the excesses of anti Chinese activism But after losing an early organizational struggle with the firebrand Kearney Roney switched tactics and decided to use anti Chinese sentiment as a tool for building the labor movement This implies that the It Happens in the Hamptons racism was simply out there in the population and that the leaders would either oppose the Chinese or be swept aside But what of the Ve sladké tísni klína role of the incessant anti Chinese propaganda in the creation of the Eat Only When You're Hungry racist environmentSuggestions for further Breaking readingSucheng Chan This Bittersweet Soil The Chinese in California Agriculture 1860 1910Andrew Gyory Closing the Gate Race Politics and the Chinese Exclusion ActNajia Aarim Heriot Chinese Immigrants African Americans and Racial Anxiety in the United States 1848 82

Alexander Saxton Ù 3 characters

review The Indispensable Enemy: Labor and the Anti-Chinese Movement in California Alexander Saxton Ù 3 characters read & download ☆ eBook or Kindle ePUB Ù Alexander Saxton Ornia The Indispensable Enemy looks beyond the turn of the 19th century to trace results of the seuence of events in the West for the labor movement as a whole influencing events that led to the crystallization of an American concept of national identi. For a book published in the 70s this holds up really really well and while i don t think a book on how racism specifically institutionalized anti Chinese racism shaped the politics and labor movement of the West Coast is exactly world shattering news unless you are some sort of political position devoted to lauding the working class but it is well written and has that particular historical number crunching that i find particularly enjoyable Also has a fairly open breakdown of how appealing to racial prejudice while ostensibly operating under a conception of euality for all was navigated by different political tendencies but especially the American Socialist movement